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Online Citation Guides

In research papers, political scientists generally use what is called the "author-date" system of citation. This means that, when a writer cites a source, he/she makes a short reference to the source within the body of the text (e.g., Dahl 2000, 27), rather than using a footnote, and then provides a list of "references" at the end of the paper, as opposed to providing a "bibliography," which has a slightly different format. (Note that somtimes you will be asked to produce a bibliography for class or work, so you will also need to know how to create bibliographic entries.)

The American Political Science Association (APSA) uses an author-date system that is based on the author-date system of the Chicago Manual of Style. Since most poliitcal science students will not go on to become academic political scientists, but will instead work in politics directly, I encourage students to adopt the citation rules of the Chicago Manual of Style. Note also that the "Turabian" system is simply a shorter and more accessible version of the Chicago Manual author-date system, so if you have a "Turabian Manual," you are in good shape. 

The following are some useful links for learning the rules of the author-date system:

Chicago Manual of Style Online: Chicago-Style quick citation guide

Turabian Manual quick citation guide

American Political Science Association style guide (from the Writing Center at the University of Wisconsin)

American Political Science Association style guide (from the Trinity College web site)

American Political Science Association style guide (from the Edinboro University web site)

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